Proton-Transfer Reactions in Aqueous Solutions
Rather than select reagent ions with a quadrupole, the reagent ions are produced with very high purity by a hollow-cathode discharge. Secondly, the flow tube is replaced by a relatively short drift tube, using an electric field instead of a carrier gas to transport ions. Ferguson, E. In Advances in Atomic and Molecular Physics ed. Adams, N. The selected ion flow tube SIFT ; a technique for studying ion-neutral reactions. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. Hansel, A.
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Proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry: on-line trace gas analysis at the ppb level. Ion Process. Blake, R. Proton-Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry. We would like to hear from you.
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Please add me to your email newsletter. We will provide you with regular product updates and application data via email. However, the terms conjugate base and conjugate acid imply that these compounds can potentially act as bases and acids, respectively. Because a conjugate acid has a proton, it could conceivably give the proton up again.
Whether or not this event will actually occur is another matter. Later, we will develop more of an understanding of when proton transfers will actually occur. Some new terms to describe the players in proton transfer.
Excited-State Proton Transfer: Molecules in a Hurry to Get Rid of Antiaromaticity
We also need a new term to call the compound that provides the proton in these proton transfer reactions. The proton is the Lewis acid in these cases, but what do we call the entire compound that contains the acidic proton? This compound is commonly called a Bronsted acid. This term comes from studies of acids by Bronsted and Lowry, who independently observed that many reactions in chemistry involve proton transfers. It could transfer the proton back to the conjugate base, reforming the starting materials.
Alternatively, it could transfer the proton to a new base.
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In that case, the Lewis base in the first step has picked up a proton, turned into a Bronsted acid, delivered the proton to another base, and become a Lewis base again. It is like a taxicab that has picked up a passenger and dropped it off again. Sometimes in this situation, the Lewis base is called a proton shuttle.
A schematic proton shuttle. Y acts as a base and picks up a proton; it becomes a conjugate acid; it delivers the proton to Z. Delivery of protons is an essential task in a wide array of chemical processes. In biological systems, histidine residues in proteins commonly function as proton shuttles although they play many other roles as well. For example, the interconversion of aldose and ketose sugars is a basic step in a variety of biosynthetic pathways. An aldose can be converted into a ketose essentially by moving some protons.
An aldose left and a ketose right. G; Meyer, T. Proton Coupled Electron Transfer. DOI: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Chemical Reviews. Accounts of Chemical Research.
What makes proton transfer fast | Accounts of Chemical Research
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